VPC / IAM / Security Group
Amazon Virtual Private Cloud permits users to logically separate virtual networks that host their AWS resources and provides you complete control over access to your AWS network.
Within a VPC, security groups act as a basic firewall and control what inbound and outbound connections are permitted to each given resource. For example, a security group can allow inbound HTTPS traffic to a proxy server but block all other inbound traffic.
With AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM), access to AWS resources and services can be controlled at a more fine-grained level. For example, IAM can be leveraged to control who or which resources can access S3 buckets used by Shotgun.
All three of the above features are used in the Shotgun isolation features implementation to ensure that you securely connect your closed VPC to Shotgun and allow access to the media S3 buckets.